Glosario de términos y conceptos (en Inglés) utilizados en Mineria y Metalúrgia (C-D)

Cage
  Equipment used to transport men and equipment in a shaft. 
 
Caisson
  Metal casing or cylinder used to sink shafts in wet or unstable ground. 
 
Calcine
  Concentrate that is ready for smelting because the sulphur has been driven off by oxidation. 
 
Calibration
  1.  Adjusting the control or recording equipment to reflect the actual control or recording
     temperatures.
2.  Procedures that involve scanning an object of known size.  Calibration is used to adjust
     scanner readings for greater accuracy.
 
Can velocity
  The velocity of the gas in the passages between the filter units in the filter house of a gas filter. 
 
Capillarity
  Property of liquids allowing them to move through solids. 
 
Capital cost
  The total investment needed to complete a project and bring it to a commercially operable status. The cost of construction of a new plant or the expenditures for the purchase/acquisition of existing facilities. 
 
Car
  Railway wagon used to carry coal, ore and waste through underground tunnels. 
 
Car dump
  Mechanism used to unload a mining car or railway wagon. 
 
Carat
  A unit of weight used for precious stones, equivalent to 200mg (3.08 grains). 
 
Carbon adsorption
  A process where soluble complexes of gold and silver attach (without a chemical reaction) to the surfaces of activated carbon particles. Used to collect gold and silver from leach solution. 
 
Cartridge
  1.  The replaceable element of a fluid filter.
2.  The pumping unit from a vane pump, composed of the rotor, ring, vanes and one or both side
     plates. 
 
Cast blasting
  A blasting method which uses the surplus explosive energy to move overburden/waste material across the pit and reduce the cost of handling it with mine equipment. Method frequently used in coal mining. 
 
Cathode
  A rectangular plate of pure refined metal, produced in the electrolytic process of mineral refining. This plate is later melted into commercial shapes for final usage. 
 
Cellulose
  One of the major structural materials in the plant cell walls that can be utilized by microorganisms in the rumen. 
 
Celsius (C)
  The international temperature scale in which water freezes at 0 and boils at 100 under normal atmospheric conditions.   °C = (°F – 32) ÷ 1.8. 
 
Cement copper
  A copper product obtained from copper solution by precipitation (cementation) onto iron. 
 
Centimetre (cm)
  A metric unit of length equal to one hundredth of a metre.  2.54 cm is equal to one inch. 
 
Centrifugal force
  The force which impels a thing, or parts of a thing, outward from a center of rotation. 
 
Chain
  Survey measure equal to 66 feet (20.12 meters) 
 
Chain conveyor
  Conveyor where material is moved along a trough by the scraping action of crossbars attached to a moving chain. 
 
Chalcopyrite
  A sulphide mineral of copper and iron. A common ore mineral of copper. 
 
Channel
  A fluid passage, the length of which is large with respect to its cross-sectional dimension. 
 
Charge (supercharge)
  1.  To replenish a hydraulic system above atmospheric pressure.
2.  To fill an accumulator with fluid under pressure. (See Precharge pressure) 
 
Charge pressure
  The pressure at which replenishing fluid is forced into the hydraulic system (above atmospheric pressure). 
 
Check valve
  A valve which permits flow of fluid in one direction only. 
 
Choke point
  Area of the crushing chamber have the smallest cross section. 
 
Chromite
  The chief ore mineral of chromium. 
 
Cinnabar
  A vermilion-colored mercury sulfide mineral. It is the principal ore mineral for mercury. 
 
Circuit
  An arrangement of components interconnected to perform a specific function within a system. 
 
Circulating load
  Over sized pieces of ore returned to the head of a closed crushing/grinding circuit to be further reduced in size. After they reach the desired size they are moved on to the next processing step. 
 
Clarification
  A filtering process to remove suspended material from water. 
 
Classifier
  Mineral processing machine which separates minerals according to size and density. 
 
Closed center valve
  One in which all ports are blocked in the center or neutral position. 
 
Closed circuit
  A loop in the milling process where a selected portion of the product of a machine is returned to the head of the machine for finishing to required specification. 
 
Coal
  A solid, brittle, more or less distinctly stratified combustible carbonaceous rock, formed by partial to complete decomposition of vegetation. 
 
Column
  A free standing axially loaded compression member, usually vertical. 
 
Column flotation
  A tall cylindrical column used to separate valuable or unwanted minerals from the gangue. 
 
Command signal (or input signal)
  An external signal to which the servo must respond. 
 
Comminution
  The particle size reduction of materials. Breaking, crushing or grinding of coal, ore or rock.
 
 
Compensator control
  A displacement control for variable pumps and motors which alters displacement in response to pressure changes in the system as related to its adjusted pressure setting.
 
 
Complex ore
  An ore which contains a number of different minerals of value. Often means that it will be difficult to extract and separate the valuable minerals. 
 
Composites
  Built-up, bonded products consisting wholly of natural wood, or in combination with metals, plastics, etc. 
 
Compressibility
  The change in volume of a unit volume of a fluid when it is subjected to a unit change in pressure. 
 
Compression
  In crushing/grinding terms the method of material reduction by applying a compression force between two surfaces. 
 
Computer simulations
  Computer software that models actions or occurrences in the real world. 
 
Concentrate
  Powdery product of high grade ore which has the majority of the waste (gangue) removed. 
 
Concentrator
  The step(s) in a mineral processing mill which produces a concentrate of ore. 
 
Cone crusher
  Machine that has a gyrating cone/crushing head to reduce the size of ore. Usually used as a secondary crusher. 
 
Continuous miner
  A machine that constantly extracts coal while it loads it (with no stoppages).
 
 
Control
  A device used to regulate the function of a unit (See Hydraulic control, Manual control, Mechanical control, and Compensator control). 
 
Control console
  Fabricated metal cabinet housing buttons and switches for the control of a machine center. 
 
Control valve
  A device that controls the flow of liquids or gases. 
 
Controlled blasting
  Blasting patterns and sequences designed to achieve a particular objective. Examples include cast blasting and deck blasting.
 
 
Conveyor
  Equipment which moves material from one point to another continuously by means of an endless (looped) procession of hooks, buckets, wide rubber belt, etc. 
 
Core (Core sample)
  A long cylinder of rock made during exploration work. Used for analysing the geologic and chemical properties of the ore body. 
 
Counterbalance valve
  A pressure control valve which maintains back pressure to prevent a load from falling.
 
 
Cover
  The overburden or waste rock above an orebody. 
 
Cracking pressure
  The pressure at which a pressure actuated valve begins to pass fluid. 
 
Crib
  Roof support of prop timbers or ties. Arranged in alternating cross layer pattern. 
 
Crusher / Crushing
  Machines which reduce the size of the ore to a specified size for further grinding in ball/rod mills. Types include jaw, gyratory, vertical/horizontal impactor, hydraulic hammer and cone. 
 
Cushion
  A device sometimes built into the ends of a hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder which restricts the flow of fluid at the outlet port, thereby arresting the motion of the piston rod. 
 
Cyanidation
  A method of extracting gold/silver from ore by dissolving it in a weak solution of sodium, calcium or potassium cyanide. Used as the primary method for gold/silver extraction, especially for low grade producers. 
 
Cyanide
  A very toxic chemical used to dissolve gold and silver from the ore. 
 
Cylinder
  A device which converts fluid power or air into linear mechanical force and motion.  It usually consists of a movable element such as a piston and piston rod, plunger rod, plunger or ram, operating within a cylindrical bore.
 
 
Damp
  Gases (other than air) in mines, usually in dangerous concentrations. Prefixes are attached to indicate various gases and situations (Black damp, white damp, fire damp, after damp, stink damp)
 
 
De-superheater
  A device for removing the excess heat in steam as its pressure is reduced. 
 
De-vent
  To close the vent connection of a pressure control valve permitting the valve to function at its adjusted pressure setting.
 
 
Deadband
  The region or band of no response where an error signal will not cause a corresponding actuation of the controlled variable. 
 
Decompression
  The slow release of confined fluid to gradually reduce pressure on the fluid. 
 
Delta
  The amount of change in a number, size or position. 
 
Deposit
  Natural mineralization under the ground in sufficient quantities to warrant further exploration. 
 
Detectors
  Chemical or electronic instruments used to detect dangerous concentrations of mine gases. 
 
Detonator
  Device containing a small charge used to detonate an explosive. Types include: blasting caps, delay electric blasting caps, exploders, electric detonators, etc. 
 
Development drilling
  Drilling for the purpose of accurately estimating mineral reserves. 
 
Diamond
  Hardest known mineral, composed of pure carbon. 
 
Differential current
  The algebraic summation of the current in the torque motor; measured in MA (milliamperes). 
 
Differential cylinder
  Any cylinder in which the two opposed piston areas are not equal. 
 
Diffusion
  Movement of moisture from areas of high to low concentration or temperature. 
 
Dilution
  Waste rock that is unavoidably removed and mixed in with the ore. This lowers the grade of the ore. 
 
Directional valve
  A valve which selectively directs or prevents fluid flow to desired channels. 
 
Disseminated ore
  Ore spread more or less uniformly through the waste rock (gangue). Opposite of Massive ore. 
 
Dither
  A low amplitude, relatively high frequency periodic electrical signal, sometimes superimposed on the servo valve input to improve system resolution.  Dither is expressed by the dither frequency (Hz) and the peak-to-peak dither current amplitude (ma). 
 
Dore
  Unrefined gold or silver bullion bars which still need further processing to become pure metal. 
 
Dragline
  Large surface mining equipment used to remove overburden above a deposit. Has a long boom and large bucket which is thrown outwards, then dragged back towards the machine. 
 
Drain
  A passage in, or a line from, a hydraulic component which returns leakage fluid independently to reservoir or to a vented manifold. 
 
Dredging
  Process of using a machine to dig up and sift through placer deposits in a watercourse. 
 
Dressing
  Treatment of ores to concentrate their minerals into concentrates and to collect waste to be discarded as tailings. 
 
Drill
  Machine using rotation, percussion (hammering) or a combination of both to make holes. 
 
Drill hole
  A small diameter hole created when recovering a core for geological information. Also a hole used to plant explosives. 
 
Dump
  Waste material extracted during mining and placed on the surface in a large pile. Also known as a waste dump, pile, heap, tip, spoil, pike, etc. Also the actual act of unloading or the mechanism for unloading a load.
 
 
Dump truck
  A large earth moving vehicle whose carrying box can be tilted to discharge its load. 

Fuente: Mining Online Expo

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